Canid – SOTW Metal http://sotwmetal.com/ Thu, 28 Oct 2021 09:27:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://sotwmetal.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/sotw-150x150.png Canid – SOTW Metal http://sotwmetal.com/ 32 32 Closer to solving the mystery of the extinct Falklands canid warrah – MercoPress https://sotwmetal.com/closer-to-solving-the-mystery-of-the-extinct-falklands-canid-warrah-mercopress/ https://sotwmetal.com/closer-to-solving-the-mystery-of-the-extinct-falklands-canid-warrah-mercopress/#respond Thu, 28 Oct 2021 09:27:00 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/closer-to-solving-the-mystery-of-the-extinct-falklands-canid-warrah-mercopress/ Closer to solving the mystery of the extinct Falklands canid warrah Thursday, October 28, 2021 – 09:27 UTC The enigmatic wolf of the Falkland Islands, now extinct, had human visitors to the isolated archipelago until 1,070 years ago. The team led by Kit Hamley also extended their research on warrah (Dusicyon australis), an extinct fox […]]]>

Closer to solving the mystery of the extinct Falklands canid warrah

Thursday, October 28, 2021 – 09:27 UTC

The enigmatic wolf of the Falkland Islands, now extinct, had human visitors to the isolated archipelago until 1,070 years ago.

The team led by Kit Hamley also extended their research on warrah (Dusicyon australis), an extinct fox species. The warrah was the only native and terrestrial mammal to reside on the Falkland Islands when Europeans arrived. The ensuing hunt wiped out the species in 1856, making it the first extinct canine in history, Hamley says.

For years various scholars, including Charles Darwin, have debated the origins of warrah and how it got to the islands. Hamley speculates that humans may have introduced the species to the archipelago before European colonization. Many have previously rejected the theory based on a previous lack of scientific evidence, but Hamley’s team’s latest findings reopen that possibility, she says. The South American natives may have domesticated the warrah as they did with other foxes and canids, and brought them to the islands during their travels and short stays.

During a 2018 expedition to the islands, Hamely and his colleagues found three warrah bone samples at Spring Point Farm in West Falkland. Carbon dating and isotopic analysis revealed that the warrah whose bones were analyzed ?? had a marine diet consisting primarily of marine predators at the top ?? like sea lions and fur seals, a diet similar to that of native South American sailors in prehistoric times, researchers say. While these findings may reflect the coastal scavenger, they may illustrate the food their potential human counterparts obtained and ate, the researchers said.

?? This study has the potential to change the trajectory of future ecological research in the Falklands, ?? Hamley said. The introduction of a top predator, such as the warrah, may have had profound implications for the biodiversity of the islands, which are home to ground-nesting seabirds such as penguins, albatrosses and cormorants. It also changes the ever-compelling story of past human-canine relationships. We know that South American natives domesticated foxes, but this study helps show how potentially important these animals were to these communities dating back thousands of years.

Hamley conducted her research on three expeditions to the Falkland Islands in 2014, 2016, and 2018. During the 2016 trip, she participated in UMaine’s Follow a Researcher program, where scientists teach kindergarten students at the 12th get a preview of their work through live shipment updates, discussions and videos on Twitter.

The study led by Hamley contributes to the growing number of scientific inquiries into the ecological, anthropological and climatic history of the Falkland Islands carried out by researchers at UMaine. A 2020 study by UMaine found that the establishment of seabird colonies on the islands in response to a steep regional cooling period 5,000 years ago has altered its ecosystems.

As the world heats up, we hope that our growing understanding of the pre-colonial history of the Falklands will help policymakers balance the needs of wildlife and people, who depend on ecotourism, fishing and others. industries, ?? says Gill, an NSF CAREER researcher who was named Friend of the Planet 2020 by the National Center for Science Education. We are just beginning to reconstruct the role people played in the Falklands before European colonization. Due to centuries of colonialism on the continent, much of the oral knowledge about this period has been lost. Western science needs updating, and we hope that future work will be done in collaboration with today’s indigenous peoples in the region; their ancestors were the first experts here. ??


Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/closer-to-solving-the-mystery-of-the-extinct-falklands-canid-warrah-mercopress/feed/ 0
Yellow dog coats come from an ancient canid that separated from wolves millions of years ago https://sotwmetal.com/yellow-dog-coats-come-from-an-ancient-canid-that-separated-from-wolves-millions-of-years-ago/ https://sotwmetal.com/yellow-dog-coats-come-from-an-ancient-canid-that-separated-from-wolves-millions-of-years-ago/#respond Tue, 17 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/yellow-dog-coats-come-from-an-ancient-canid-that-separated-from-wolves-millions-of-years-ago/ A shiba inu, which has the “dominant yellow” coat phenotype described in the new research.Photo: Matt Cardy (Getty Images) A recent genetic analysis of dog colouration revealed that mutations in one gene are responsible for five distinctive coat patterns in dogs. These patterns show up in iconic breeds like the Corgi and Bernese Mountain Dog, […]]]>

A shiba inu, which has the

A shiba inu, which has the “dominant yellow” coat phenotype described in the new research.
Photo: Matt Cardy (Getty Images)

A recent genetic analysis of dog colouration revealed that mutations in one gene are responsible for five distinctive coat patterns in dogs. These patterns show up in iconic breeds like the Corgi and Bernese Mountain Dog, and a team of researchers have even been able to trace a coat type, called a dominant yellow, to an extinct canine that separated from Pleistocene wolves ago. 2 million years ago.

“While we think of all of these coat color variations in dogs, some of them happened long before ‘dogs’ were dogs. Genetics are proving to be much more interesting because they tell us something about the evolution of canids, ”said Danika Bannasch, geneticist at the University of California Davis, in a report. Press release. Bannasch is the lead author of a new study on genetic variants, published last week in Nature Ecology and Evolution.

To understand when the mutation occurred and which canids had the mutation and which did not, Bannasch’s team looked at eight living species, including domesticated dogs and wolves. These two species make two different types of pigments: eumelanin (black) and pheomelanin (yellow). These pigments can create five types of coat patterns in dogs, based on an individual dog’s unique mutations: dominant yellow, shadow yellow, agouti, black saddle, and black back. You can see how they show up in different races below. (Other coat types exist, such as solid black or solid brown, but these are not covered by this research.)

25 different dogs sorted by coat.

The different layers are produced by varying the mixtures of the two pigments, which are determined by variations in the agouti signaling protein. In this case, agouti refers to the hair that alternates between dark and light colors. The agouti gene controls how the black pigment is distributed throughout a number of mammals, including Hare, horses and mice.

The researchers found that two regions of the gene must mutate to cause the different coat color patterns. Of course, two breeding dogs can have offspring with a variety of these coat patterns, depending on the haplotypes of the parents.

A dog with a beige back and a white forehead.

Jiff the Collie, who has a yellow shadow phenotype.
Photo: Susan larson

Interestingly, the dominant yellow coat type is the oldest. The team determined that the genetic combination that produces the coat is shared with arctic white wolves and found in dogs because of a divergence in the evolutionary tree over 2 million years ago. years, even before modern wolves appeared. The dominant yellow coat is found in many breeds, including Irish Terriers, Male Mastiffs, Shiba Inu, Chow Chows, Sloughis, Basenjis, and Rhodesian Ridgebacks.

When you consider that the domestication of dogs can only be traced back to around 30,000 years ago, likely a more recent timestamp than the Neanderthal extinction, it shows how long these coat differences have been floating around. And with a sample of the team’s work dating back to a 9,500-year-old dog with a black pattern, it gives geneticists a better idea of ​​what some of the earliest domesticated dogs may have looked like.

More: Too Meat During Ice Age Spawned Dogs, New Research Finds


Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/yellow-dog-coats-come-from-an-ancient-canid-that-separated-from-wolves-millions-of-years-ago/feed/ 0
Dogs: The blonde coats are from an extinct canine that separated from the gray wolves about two MILLION years ago https://sotwmetal.com/dogs-the-blonde-coats-are-from-an-extinct-canine-that-separated-from-the-gray-wolves-about-two-million-years-ago/ https://sotwmetal.com/dogs-the-blonde-coats-are-from-an-extinct-canine-that-separated-from-the-gray-wolves-about-two-million-years-ago/#respond Mon, 16 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/dogs-the-blonde-coats-are-from-an-extinct-canine-that-separated-from-the-gray-wolves-about-two-million-years-ago/ The blond coats seen on dogs like golden retrievers come from an extinct canine that separated from gray wolves more than two million years ago, according to a study. It has long been assumed that thousands of years of selective breeding in our hands were responsible for the diversity of dog coat patterns – but […]]]>

The blond coats seen on dogs like golden retrievers come from an extinct canine that separated from gray wolves more than two million years ago, according to a study.

It has long been assumed that thousands of years of selective breeding in our hands were responsible for the diversity of dog coat patterns – but this apparently is not the case.

To color and pattern their coats, dogs and wolves use a combination of two types of pigments: eumelanin, which is black, and pheomelanin, which is yellow.

The production of the latter is controlled by the signaling protein called agouti, or ASIP for short, which is in turn regulated by the gene that makes this protein.

Researchers led by the University of California at Davis have found that variations in two locations of the ASIP gene are responsible for creating five distinct coat patterns.

These are the ‘dominant yellow’, the ‘ombré yellow’, the ‘agouti’ (alternating dark and light bands), the ‘black saddle’ and the ‘black back’.

canid that separated from gray wolves more than two million years ago, study finds” class=”blkBorder img-share” style=”max-width:100%” />

The blond coats seen on dogs like golden retrievers (pictured) come from an extinct canid that separated from gray wolves more than two million years ago, study finds

THE FIVE REASONS

According to Professor Bannasch and his colleagues, the dogs’ coats come in five distinct patterns.

These are:

  • Dominant yellow
  • Shaded yellow
  • Agouti (dark and light bands)
  • Black saddle
  • Black back

According to the team, the dominant yellow evolved over 2 million years ago, long before dogs were domesticated.

The study was conducted by geneticist Danika Bannasch of the University of California, Davis and her colleagues.

“While we think of all of these coat color variations in dogs, some of them happened long before ‘dogs’ were dogs,” said Professor Bannasch.

“Genetics are proving to be much more interesting because they tell us something about the evolution of canids.”

In their study, Professor Bannasch and his colleagues analyzed the genomes of 77 dogs and wolves with known color patterns.

Their analysis revealed that no genetic mutation could explain the five different coat patterns seen in dogs.

Instead, variations in two different places on the ASIP gene are involved – one related to belly hair and the other to the hair growth cycle.

Additionally, the team found that the genetic combination of the ‘dominant yellow’ motif, which is shared with arctic white wolves, was much older than expected, dating back to a canine that split off from gray wolves. about two million years ago.

For comparison, dogs weren’t domesticated until around 30,000 years ago, the researchers said.

“We were initially surprised to find that white wolves and yellow dogs have an almost identical ASIP DNA configuration,” explained article author Chris Kaelin of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology in Huntsville, Alabama. .

“But we were even more surprised when it turned out that a specific DNA pattern was over 2 million years old.”

This, he explained, is “before the emergence of modern wolves as a species.”

Researchers led by the University of California at Davis have found that variations in two locations of the ASIP gene are responsible for creating five distinct coat patterns.  These are 'dominant yellow', 'shadow yellow', 'agouti' (dark and light bands), 'black saddle' and 'black back'

Researchers led by the University of California at Davis have found that variations in two locations of the ASIP gene are responsible for creating five distinct coat patterns. These are the ‘dominant yellow’, the ‘shadow yellow’, the ‘agouti’ (that is, with alternating dark and light bands), the ‘black saddle’ and the ‘black back’. In the photo: Examples of different dogs with the five coat patterns

Researchers believe the ancient canid lived in an arctic environment during an ice age 1.5 to 2 million years ago, where lighter coat colors would have been beneficial and naturally chosen.

This, they added, would explain how the coat pattern persisted in the population that ultimately gave birth to modern dogs and wolves.

In contrast, the black back pattern was identified in a 9500 year old sample, showing that the rich variation in coat colors was present in the oldest of our canine companions.

“While we think about all of these coat color variations in dogs, some of them have happened way before "dogs" were dogs, ”Professor Bannasch said.

“While we think of all of these coat color variations in dogs, some of them happened long before ‘dogs’ were dogs,” said Professor Bannasch. “Genetics are proving to be much more interesting because they tell us something about the evolution of canids.” Imagine a strand of DNA

While this study is complete, Professor Bannasch is still working with dogs, his current work focusing on identifying the underlying molecular causes of inherited diseases that affect both dogs and horses.

The geneticist is also passionate about breeding and training dogs and her pets include both a “black back” and a Danish-Swedish farm dog with “dominant yellow” patterns.

All she needs now, she joked, are the other three coat designs for a “complete set.”

The full results of the study have been published in the journal Ecology and evolution of nature.

HOW DOGS BECOME DOMESTIC?

New study found dogs and humans have been romantically involved with each other for at least 14,000 years (file photo)

New study found dogs and humans have been romantically involved with each other for at least 14,000 years (file photo)

A genetic analysis of the oldest known dog remains in the world revealed that dogs were domesticated 20,000 to 40,000 years ago in a single event by humans living in Eurasia.

Dr Krishna Veeramah, Assistant Professor of Evolution at Stony Brook University, said: “The process of domestication of dogs would have been a very complex process, involving a number of generations where the characteristic traits of the dog gradually evolved.

“The current hypothesis is that the domestication of dogs probably occurred passively, with a wolf population somewhere in the world living on the outskirts of hunter-gatherer camps feeding on human-created waste.

“Those wolves that were more tame and less aggressive would have done better, and although humans initially did not benefit from this process, over time they would have developed a kind of symbiosis. [mutually beneficial] relationship with these animals, eventually evolving into the dogs we see today.


Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/dogs-the-blonde-coats-are-from-an-extinct-canine-that-separated-from-the-gray-wolves-about-two-million-years-ago/feed/ 0
What we can learn when we stop and look around https://sotwmetal.com/what-we-can-learn-when-we-stop-and-look-around-2/ https://sotwmetal.com/what-we-can-learn-when-we-stop-and-look-around-2/#respond Wed, 23 Jun 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/what-we-can-learn-when-we-stop-and-look-around-2/ A recent video of two foxes walking around Bascom Hill, apparently indifferent to human presence, filmed by Argyle Wade, Chief of Staff of the Vice-Chancellor for Student Affairs. COVID-19 has forced us to change our behavior; our world has closed in a way that many of us never imagined. But what about animals? How, if […]]]>

A recent video of two foxes walking around Bascom Hill, apparently indifferent to human presence, filmed by Argyle Wade, Chief of Staff of the Vice-Chancellor for Student Affairs.

COVID-19 has forced us to change our behavior; our world has closed in a way that many of us never imagined. But what about animals?

How, if at all, has the pandemic changed the behavior of wildlife? Has animal behavior changed in response to alterations in human behavior and patterns?

When the pandemic started in March 2020, people started noticing a lot of wild animals that David Drake, director of the Urban Canid project, is studying. Urban Canid Project, founded in 2014, tracks foxes, coyotes and other canids in the Madison area. The project aims to educate the public about canines, as well as suggest ways to coexist between humans and wildlife.

Drake noted that there is currently a “meta-analysis” examining the possible correlation between animal models and a change in human behavior since the start of the pandemic, and whether animals have started to act differently due to a change. of human behavior.

“Data suggests there has been no change in patterns of wildlife [and] behavior, ”Drake explained.

He hypothesized that the reason some believe more animals are seen is simply because people have been able to observe them more.

“I think [what] that occurred during the pandemic, is [that] we were forced to watch… so we had the opportunity to look out our windows or sit outside, ”said Drake,“ I think the result is [that] people saw things that were always around them [but] they did not have the opportunity to observe them [before the pandemic]”Drake shared.

Drake noted that a wildlife presence on the UW campus predates the pandemic, although people haven’t always seen them.

“We’ve had coyotes and foxes on campus for years… we’ve had deer, foxes or snowy owls in the winter,” he explained, “a lot of these species are adaptable and they are comfortable with people. ”

A recent video of two foxes strolling around Bascom Hill, seemingly indifferent to human presence, was shot by Argyle Wade, Chief of Staff of the Vice-Chancellor for Student Affairs.

The Urban Canid project hopes to soon revive its tradition of inviting the public to join when they trap animals to tag them and radio collars study them, Drake said. This practice was abandoned during the pandemic.

“We just take [the public] with us on our trap checks and we explain to them how we trap, why we trap, what we do with the data, [and] the purpose of the project, ”said Drake.

Members of the public are encouraged to be as involved as they like in the trapping process and to take pictures with and touch the animals.

Students weigh a trapped coyote as part of the Urban Canid project in 2019. Photo: Jeff Miller

“It’s an opportunity for people to personalize themselves with this animal and not to look at it so much like a bad guy, but to see this animal as this really cool species of wild animals,” Drake said, “they have a totally different perspective on these animals. ”

Last winter was the worst trapping season the project has seen since it began in 2014, Drake said, possibly due to the increased human presence outside.

“I think we had such bad results because there were a lot of people walking [outside]”Drake said,” So there were a lot more people in the areas… and I think that upset the movement patterns of the animals due to human presence and activity. ”

Currently, Drake is working on a project to study the availability of food for animals and its impact on the coexistence between different species. This includes the availability of food both from a natural perspective, which includes other animals and plants, as well as from an anthropogenic perspective, such as people’s garbage cans.

UW graduate student Morgan Farmer is working closely with Drake on this project. He noted that this research will allow researchers to better understand how animals like foxes and coyotes coexist peacefully, and the link with abundance and access to food for the animals.

“Animals don’t have to compete for limited amounts of food,” said Drake, “we think this will help us understand what drives this coexistence.”

While the Urban Canid project waits to return, Drake has said one thing he’s truly grateful for since the start of the project: the amount of support the project has received from both UW-Madison and the region over off Madison.

“[UW-Madison] has been incredibly supportive, ”said Drake,“ the general public… everyone is extremely supportive of our project. ”


Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/what-we-can-learn-when-we-stop-and-look-around-2/feed/ 0
Help a town of badgers coexist with their canine neighbors https://sotwmetal.com/help-a-town-of-badgers-coexist-with-their-canine-neighbors/ https://sotwmetal.com/help-a-town-of-badgers-coexist-with-their-canine-neighbors/#respond Mon, 09 Nov 2020 08:00:00 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/help-a-town-of-badgers-coexist-with-their-canine-neighbors/ The doors to Camp Randall Stadium open for seven home football games each season. When they do, fans in their red and white badgers flock by the tens of thousands. Under a bird’s-blue sky in 2017, another Madison resident entered the stadium. Like most, given the occasion, the visitor wore his best red and white. […]]]>

The doors to Camp Randall Stadium open for seven home football games each season. When they do, fans in their red and white badgers flock by the tens of thousands.

Under a bird’s-blue sky in 2017, another Madison resident entered the stadium. Like most, given the occasion, the visitor wore his best red and white.

He wasn’t your typical fan though. They entered under the southwest bleachers, ticketless, and quickly took their places in the middle of the field on the famous Motion “W”.

They were adept at laying the siege down and may have gone unnoticed, but something betrayed them: They weren’t a badger. It was a red fox.

A family of foxes leave the den to explore the UW-Madison campus.

In addition to red and white, the fox wore a tracking collar fitted by the UW Urban Canid Project (UWUCP).

UWUCP gained new insight into red fox and coyote behavior in the Madison cityscape and shared this information with the public to change knowledge, opinions and dialogue regarding urban dogs.

“The project has broader implications than coyotes and foxes. If we have a healthy urban ecosystem that can support a high biodiversity of animals – including those more susceptible to urbanization – this will result in a healthy ecosystem for humans, ”said David Drake.

The project started “by accident” when Drake, professor of forest and wildlife ecology and wildlife specialist at UW-Extension, was called in by the Lakeshore Nature Preserve in 2014.

Reserve staff had received comments on coyote sightings around Picnic Point, a peninsula along the southern shore of Lake Mendota. The coyotes had even followed citizens walking their dogs and walking the trails.

Historically, the literature on coyote-human encounters has been negative, Drake said. Reports detailing the coyote’s assault on humans, dogs and cattle have made it one of the most persecuted animals in America.

Unlike depictions in folklore and popular culture, coyotes aren’t the cunning and malicious characters humans have made of them, Drake and his team have discovered.

Enjoy what you read? Get Daily Cardinal content delivered to your inbox

“Being afraid of something is that when you start to familiarize yourself with it, you start to lose your fear,” he said, capturing the project’s goal of changing perceptions through familiarity.

To get a better idea of ​​what was going on in Madison, Drake decided to place hunting cameras where coyotes had been spotted. Indeed, a pack had taken up residence in the Lakeshore nature reserve.

The proliferation of red fox and coyote sightings in Madison was not shocking news, Drake said. A great deal of research had already been done on urban coyotes, making any further discovery unlikely. Either way, Drake jumped at the chance to search for Madison’s canine residents.

“No one had looked at the urban red fox in North America or the relationship between red foxes and coyotes in urban settings,” he explained.

At the start of UWUCP, Drake and his team looked for disease in foxes and coyotes by drawing blood and swabbing the nasal and rectal passages of each animal they trapped.

For the most part, the animals were in very good health. They had been exposed to various diseases, including distemper, parvovirus and adenovirus, but a lack of trend data suggested an ability to combat them.

“Animals are nutritionally healthy because there is so much food available and when you are nutritionally healthy your immune system can fight off disease,” he said. “The big difference, from a disease standpoint, was that 65% of the coyotes tested had Lyme disease and 45% had heartworm. Only one fox we tested had Lyme disease and none had heartworms. “

According to Drake, Lyme disease carrying ticks and mosquitoes transmitting the heartworm inhabit the same areas as coyotes. Tall grasses in urban green spaces like the Arboretum and Lakeshore Nature Reserve provide suitable habitat for ticks and mosquitoes. Unlike coyotes, foxes spend their time in human-developed landscapes where tick and mosquito habitat is scarce.

Drake and his team captured live canids and fitted them with satellite collars to collect “more refined spatial data” on the whereabouts of the animals. The collars provide researchers with eight hourly slots per night on each animal.

News_FoxMap.png

A map shows the home ranges of radio collared foxes and coyotes in Madison.

“What we do know about Madison is that red foxes and coyotes seem to be able to coexist in the same space at the same time,” Drake said.

In non-urban areas, foxes and coyotes typically overlap in their eating habits and type. Coyotes are about three times the size of foxes and tend to exclude them competitively. In Madison, the abundance of food means these animals don’t have to compete for limited resources, according to Drake.

On past mornings, Drake invited small groups to help check out the trapline and handle the canines. This opportunity gave over 500 people the opportunity to have a more intimate conversation about UWUCP, learn more about living trapping, and become more involved in the natural world.

“People react really positively to wildlife. They like to see it. It enriches people’s lives to have nature around them, ”said Drake, noting the huge public interest in the project.

While COVID-19 has put volunteering for the project on the back burner, it’s not the only way to help. In 2015, UWUCP launched a Naturalist page where citizens could report canine sightings in the city of Madison. The data provided a more comprehensive view than satellite collars alone, Drake said.

The project will soon publish an article on iNaturalist data and human-coyote encounters. Each person who reported an observation was asked to rate the animal’s level of aggression from zero to five, with zero being the least aggressive and five the most aggressive.

“What we found in Madison, looking at 400 different first-person events, was that 97% were completely benign – there was no aggression from the coyotes,” Drake said.

The UWUCP team participated in over 20 municipal events where they shared their research and provided advice for coexistence with neighbor canines.

“At all times, you have to put the fear of humans in canines. It’s the best way for us to coexist. Maintaining a healthy fear of humans encourages animals to move away from human activity rather than coming to it, ”Drake explained.

For Drake, sharing information about canines and promoting the positivity of their residence in Madison is one of the most rewarding aspects of the UW Urban Canid Project.

Canids have strong intrinsic and utility value, Drake said. They are native to the state and region, having existed here for centuries. They are also very good at controlling the population of animals such as squirrels, rabbits, mice and rats, he added.

Despite hundreds of years of persecution, canines live closer to humans than ever before. The health of ecosystems depends on our ability to trade fear for familiarity and conflict for coexistence.

“At the end of the day they’re here and they’re not going anywhere and we’re not going anywhere, so we better learn to live together unless it’s a rocky road for all of us,” Drake said. .

Drake thanked the graduate students who have been “the workhorses of this project”. They collected data and published articles, which earned them much of the credit.

Donations to the UW Urban Canid project can be made through the UW Foundation.

The Daily Cardinal has covered Madison University and Community since 1892. Please consider donating today.


Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/help-a-town-of-badgers-coexist-with-their-canine-neighbors/feed/ 0
The inhabitants of the valley tell of sightings of “canids” https://sotwmetal.com/the-inhabitants-of-the-valley-tell-of-sightings-of-canids/ https://sotwmetal.com/the-inhabitants-of-the-valley-tell-of-sightings-of-canids/#respond Thu, 03 Sep 2020 07:00:00 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/the-inhabitants-of-the-valley-tell-of-sightings-of-canids/ This 72-pound taxidermized canid was killed in the late 1990s and is a hybrid between a coyote and a wolf, according to state biologist Kim Royar. (Provided) Throughout the Route 100 valley, residents have spotted and heard large wolf-like canines this year. While it’s not entirely impossible for people to actually see real wolves, it’s […]]]>

This 72-pound taxidermized canid was killed in the late 1990s and is a hybrid between a coyote and a wolf, according to state biologist Kim Royar. (Provided)

Throughout the Route 100 valley, residents have spotted and heard large wolf-like canines this year. While it’s not entirely impossible for people to actually see real wolves, it’s unlikely, according to wildlife biologist Kim Royar.

Royar works for the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, said there are no wolves in Vermont that the department is aware of, but the state’s forests are “saturated” with coyotes. Royar suspects that what people believe to be wolves are probably “big coyotes”.

Although Vermont historically had a population of wolves, they were wiped out when European settlers put a bounty on wolves and clearcut much of the forest, Royar said.

Coyotes, for their part, “are a bit more adaptable” when it comes to food sources, Royar said, so they weren’t as dependent as wolves on having densely forested areas.

“They eat everything from small rodents and deer, to plant matter, apples and cherries, insects and groundhogs, so they can change their food preferences according to what is available.”

Although before the arrival of Europeans, coyotes only lived west of the Mississippi River, they eventually began to move east, across Canada where they bred with wolves. according to some genetic research, and across the St. Lawrence River to Vermont, Royer said.

It was in the early 1900s, when the river was still freezing cold enough for large canids to cross in winter, she said.

Royar explained that based on genetic research conducted by scientist Roland Kays, eastern coyotes tend to weigh on average about 10 pounds more than those found in the western part of the country.

“They have a larger head, they tend to stay in family groups – they’re less solitary than western coyotes,” Royar said.

“So people see these animals behaving a bit more like they perceive a wolf to behave, they look a bit bigger than what people would expect a coyote to look like – and it is very, very difficult to distinguish one from the other without doing so. genetic testing on them.

Looking at for wolves

Usually, wolves have longer legs and wider skulls than coyotes, but, Royar pointed out, “when you see an animal from a distance,” it’s really hard to identify if it’s a. wolf or coyote.

For the past two decades or so, there have been two captured wild dogs that were so large that the state had them tested to see if they were wolves.

One, taken in the late 1990s, weighed 72 pounds, which Royar described as “excessively big for a coyote”.

Another, taken about a decade later, weighed 92 pounds, she said.

The larger animal turned out to be a Canis lupus, or gray wolf, she said, but further tests showed her parents were from two separate population areas, meaning the animal was probably bred in captivity.

“We don’t know what the origin of this animal was,” she said.

The 72-pound animal was a cross between an eastern Canadian wolf and a coyote, Royar said.

She is not sure where this animal came from, but it is possible that it descended from Canada.

“The other complicating problem is that there are people who have wolf hybrids as pets… sometimes these pets are not very conducive to living in a domestic environment… and they end up s ‘escape or people let them go and they go wild,’ Royar said.

She noted that even 45 or 50 pounds for a coyote is unusually large, but not impossible.

“We generally assume that what people are probably seeing,” are large coyotes, Royar said.

While it is not impossible that wolves may have made the trip from Canada to Vermont in recent years, Royar said it was also not very likely, as the area around the border is rather suburban, a difficult landscape for wolves to cross.

Despite this, residents of towns along Route 100 and Route 73 have shared stories of animals they firmly believe are wolves, not coyotes.

Muffie Harvey, from Rochester, said about a year ago she saw a large dog from her porch.

She’s no stranger to coyotes, she says.

“We live in the boonies a bit,” she said, noting that in the past, coydogs and coyotes have caused problems near her home.

But this particular canine caught his eye from his living room window.

“I took the binoculars to look at her, and this creature was huge,” she said, “she was really tall… and she clearly had wolf features.”

She did not see him again, but told him it was clearly not a coyote or coydog like the ones she had seen before.

Linda Deslauriers of Granville also once observed a wolf-like canine.

His sighting took place last November, in Waitsfield. Deslauriers was heading north towards Canada and she saw a large dog heading for the river.

The color and size of the animal immediately made Deslauriers think of a gray wolf.

“He was standing right by the side of the road,” she said. “Seeing the wolf, there was only a sign of welcome and a blessing.”

According to the Deslauriers, the sighting occurred during “a very beautiful winter day, a light snow on the ground and this thing just stood out, magnificent”.

Although Harvey and Deslauriers maintain that the animals they saw were too big and looked like wolves to be coyotes, they and Royar agree that they are curious to hear more stories about the great canines of the region.

Royar noted that people who spy on feral dogs can send photos of them to the department and that F&W staff could help identify if they are wolves, coyotes or a hybrid.

And she hopes that if people see coyotes instead of wolves, they won’t be too disappointed.

Coyotes, she said, “are here to stay… they play an important and positive role in the ecosystem.” And, she added, “they’re pretty cool.”


Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/the-inhabitants-of-the-valley-tell-of-sightings-of-canids/feed/ 0
A Complete Guide to the Cradle of the Canine Side Quest https://sotwmetal.com/a-complete-guide-to-the-cradle-of-the-canine-side-quest/ https://sotwmetal.com/a-complete-guide-to-the-cradle-of-the-canine-side-quest/#respond Sat, 27 Jun 2020 07:00:00 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/a-complete-guide-to-the-cradle-of-the-canine-side-quest/ After completing the quest Monarch without radio in The outer worlds, a cutscene will be caused of a crash landing of a ship far away on the current planet, Monarch. The radio intermissions will be interrupted by the two leaders of the MSI groups and the Iconoclasts in an attempt to persuade the player to […]]]>

After completing the quest Monarch without radio in The outer worlds, a cutscene will be caused of a crash landing of a ship far away on the current planet, Monarch. The radio intermissions will be interrupted by the two leaders of the MSI groups and the Iconoclasts in an attempt to persuade the player to help one of them get what he wants most. The combat helicopter targeting module.

RELATED: 10 Secret Side Quests Everyone Missed In The Outer Worlds

A UDL gunship has crashed into Monarch, and MSI and the Iconoclasts desperately want it.


8
See where the ship lands

Before the player makes big decisions, it is best to check what it was about. The gunship crash lands in an unmarked area. The nearest point of travel is Terra One Publications. From there the player walks on foot.

This targeting module controls the gunship system of the gunship. Without it, the ship is effectively useless in combat. So much power in something so small.

Along the way, Rapidon encounters can be found around every corner. Traveling through the new sulfur pits will take you to the UDL Gunship.

7
Collect the Gunship targeting module

When standing in front of the gaping hole made inside the ship, also the only entrance, all equipped companions notify the player that they will be waiting outside while the targeting mod is retrieved.

The choice of which companions to be left behind may seem a bit vague, but no weapon needs to be fired inside the ship. Inside, the ship is unbalanced (which can make some players sick from the movements) and welded. All the player has to do is interact with the first terminal and then continue until you find the mod. Take it and go.

6
(Optional) Give the targeting mod to Sanjar

Sanjar works for Monarch Stellar Industries (MSI). He has a bright future of freedom in the galaxy, focusing on democracy. The MSI was once under The Board and Sanjar worked for them. He was a very loyal employee of the Commission and wants to focus on workers’ rights without destroying what was already in place.

RELATED: The Outer Worlds 10 Emerald Vale Items You Need To Grab

Giving Sanjar the targeting mod means the MSI has the power and holds all of Monarch to do whatever it wants.

5
(Optional) Give the targeting mod to Graham

Graham himself founded the iconoclastic movement and is its main leader. It focuses heavily on spreading the word of the iconoclastic movement like a virus at all costs. Even if men have to die needlessly for it. Upon further investigation, the player can discover that Graham was the cause of the Amber Heights massacre.

Giving Graham the targeting mod means he controls both Stellar Bay and Amber Heights for his own plans to spread the Iconoclast message even more.

4
(Optional) Give the targeting mod to Zora

Zora is Graham’s right-hand man and the Iconoclast’s health professional. The two clashed over what should be the group’s priority. Zora believes that people’s lives matter and that their soldiers shouldn’t be constantly used as unnecessary messengers to spread the word.

Giving the targeting mod to Zora means that Graham has been eliminated and that she is the sole leader of the Iconoclasts. Zora will have the power over Monarch to pursue her plans for the Iconoclasts as she sees fit.

3
(Optional) Ask MSI and Iconoclasts to Negotiate

Arguably the best option due to less bloodshed and negativity, MSI and Iconoclasts can agree to work together in peace and harmony. For this option, the player must be able to convince both parties using the information and persuasion found previously. Sanjar and Graham have pasts, but getting Zora to negotiate with him is key.

RELATED: 10 Best Characters From The Outer Worlds, Ranked

To do this, the player must prove to Sanjar that Zora has a reputable job behind her. The player must read a terminal in Cascadia to have proof of Zora’s past work. Sanjar will then be content to work with Zora, but Zora must control the Iconoclasts to make decisions in the first place.

To put Zora in control, the player must have helped Zora before Canid‘s Cradle. They must then help him a little more. Helping him more means, after talking to Sanjar about the negotiation, Zora gives the player a new quest in search of supplies and information. This reveals that Graham was responsible for the Amber Heights massacre. The player should give Zora some space to think. After that, she confronts him, resulting in Graham’s death and his leadership.

The only way to go after all of this is to have about 55 people in Persuasion to keep the two going until the negotiation is over. The targeting module stays with the player who can be sold. MSI and Iconoclasts share Monarch.

2
Side with the MSI

Choosing to give the mod to Sanjar and side with the MSI means that every Iconoclast encountered afterwards will be hostile. While the player does not have to go to war and kill all the Iconoclasts, they will attack themselves if they see you.

Returning to Amber Heights means yet another slaughter for the city.

1
Side with the iconoclasts

If the player chooses to give the targeting mod to Zora or Graham, you are forced to get rid of the force and the leader of Stellar Bay. They want Stellar Bay and Monarch. Without continuing to negotiate, Sanjar will not give up everything he has created.

The player must kill Sanjar and his associates during the quest, leaving Stellar Bay in a bloodbath for the Iconoclasts to clean up and take.

NEXT: 10 Ways To Level Up Faster In The Outer Worlds


close up of Aloys face
Players are mad at Aloy’s cheeks in Horizon Forbidden West because of course they are

Aloy’s cheeks have been the subject of a lot of mockery from online gamers in recent days because they are a bit bigger.

Read more


About the Author


Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/a-complete-guide-to-the-cradle-of-the-canine-side-quest/feed/ 0
Meet the Fox: A Small Omnivorous Canid and Our Wild Neighbor (November 2008) https://sotwmetal.com/meet-the-fox-a-small-omnivorous-canid-and-our-wild-neighbor-november-2008/ https://sotwmetal.com/meet-the-fox-a-small-omnivorous-canid-and-our-wild-neighbor-november-2008/#respond Sun, 08 Mar 2020 15:58:11 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/meet-the-fox-a-small-omnivorous-canid-and-our-wild-neighbor-november-2008/ The Crestone Eagle, November 2008: Meet the fox: a small omnivorous canine and our wild neighbor by Keno There are 27 species of foxes in the world, including 4 species of fox in the state of Colorado. The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is found in canyons and along state foothills. The little swift fox (Vulpes […]]]>

The Crestone Eagle, November 2008:

Meet the fox: a small omnivorous canine and our wild neighbor

by Keno

There are 27 species of foxes in the world, including 4 species of fox in the state of Colorado. The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is found in canyons and along state foothills. The little swift fox (Vulpes velox) is confined to the eastern plains of Colorado and its close relative, the dwarf fox (Vulpes macrotis), live in the semi-desert shrub lands stretching from Montrose to Grand Junction.

Here in Crestone, usually only the red fox (vulpes vulpes) is found, with 35 to 50 of them living in our region. The red fox also lives statewide and they are the most common foxes in the world, found on almost every continent.

Foxes are generally smaller than other members of the canine family, such as wolves, jackals, and domestic dogs. Red and Gray Foxes are 3ft long and weigh 9-11 pounds. Swift and dwarf foxes are only 27 to 36 inches long; their tail is as long as their body. They weigh 4 to 7 pounds. On average, male foxes (dogs) weigh about a pound more than female foxes (vixens).

Most foxes only live 2 to 3 years, but they can survive for up to about 10 years in captivity. Unlike most other canines, foxes are not generally pack animals; they are generally solitary. Foxes have a highly developed sense of smell, excellent hearing and good vision. They can run at a speed of 30 mph and are good swimmers.

Foxes are opportunistic eaters who hunt for living prey. They eat rodents, grasshoppers, birds (especially chickens), as well as various fruits and berries. Foxes are known to hide their food, burying the excess for later consumption. Unlike our local coyotes, foxes aren’t as likely to pick up your pet cat, but if they’re hungry enough, they might. Like many of our other local wildlife, if you’re not careful you’ll attract foxes to your home. Garbage that is not stored safely is an easy meal for these scavengers.

All Colorado foxes produce a single litter of young per year. Gestation periods vary from 7 to 8 weeks with litters of around four weeks on average. A typical home range for a red fox is five to ten square miles. Males travel farther than females, but juveniles that move away from their parents often travel the farthest. Adult red foxes will usually stay within a mile of their den while raising young.

The red fox is active day and night, but most often at dawn and dusk. They are very noisy, especially during the breeding season. The most commonly misinterpreted sounds they make are howls that can sound like a house cat fight. Barking and yapping are also common. Although the fox howls, the sound is quite different from the howl of the coyote. Chances are, you’ve heard their howl and mistaken it for a funny-sounding dog.

Foxes are extremely suspicious of humans and cannot be kept as pets. However, they adapt quite well to human presence. If a red fox is acting aggressively, it could be a sign that it is sick. Any red fox that appears to be ill or is acting aggressively should be reported to our local Wildlife Division office. Landowners who wish to shoot red fox should be aware of local and state laws. Hunting red foxes on public lands requires a Colorado small game license.

Editor’s Note: Red fox families live in the town of Crestone and the Baca, often near homes. Be aware of our furry little neighbors and help protect their habitat. Young kittens are particularly vulnerable and roaming dogs pose a danger to their safety.


Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/meet-the-fox-a-small-omnivorous-canid-and-our-wild-neighbor-november-2008/feed/ 0
Canine fossil study consistent with dog domestication during the Ice Age – HeritageDaily https://sotwmetal.com/canine-fossil-study-consistent-with-dog-domestication-during-the-ice-age-heritagedaily/ https://sotwmetal.com/canine-fossil-study-consistent-with-dog-domestication-during-the-ice-age-heritagedaily/#respond Wed, 19 Feb 2020 08:00:00 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/canine-fossil-study-consistent-with-dog-domestication-during-the-ice-age-heritagedaily/ (the “Website”), is operated by HERITAGEDAILY What are cookies ? Cookies are small text files stored in the web browser that allow HERITAGEDAILY or a third party to recognize you. Cookies can be used to collect, store and share information about your activities on websites, including the HERITAGEDAILY website and the affiliate brand website. Cookies […]]]>

(the “Website”), is operated by HERITAGEDAILY

What are cookies ?

Cookies are small text files stored in the web browser that allow HERITAGEDAILY or a third party to recognize you. Cookies can be used to collect, store and share information about your activities on websites, including the HERITAGEDAILY website and the affiliate brand website.

Cookies can be used for the following purposes:

– To activate certain functions

– To provide analysis

– To store your preferences

– To activate ad serving and behavioral advertising

HERITAGEDAILY uses both session cookies and persistent cookies.

A session cookie is used to identify a particular visit to our website. These cookies expire after a short period of time or when you close your web browser after using our website. We use these cookies to identify you during a single browsing session.

A persistent cookie will remain on your devices for a defined period of time specified in the cookie. We use these cookies when we need to identify you over a longer period of time. For example, we would use a persistent cookie for remarketing purposes on social media platforms such as Facebook advertising or Google display advertising.

How do third parties use cookies on the HERITAGEDAILY site?

Third-party companies such as analytics companies and ad networks typically use cookies to collect information about users anonymously. They may use this information to create a profile of your activities on the HERITAGEDAILY website and other websites you have visited.

If you don’t like the idea of ​​cookies or certain types of cookies, you can change your browser settings to delete cookies already set and not accept new cookies. To learn more about how to do this, visit the help pages of the browser of your choice.

Please note that if you delete cookies or do not accept them, your user experience may miss many of the features that we offer, you may not be able to store your preferences and some of our pages may not display correctly.

For more information on cookies, go to the Information Commissioners page (ico): https://ico.org.uk/for-the-public/online/cookies/


Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/canine-fossil-study-consistent-with-dog-domestication-during-the-ice-age-heritagedaily/feed/ 0
Oriental coyote: the great canine of the Adirondacks – https://sotwmetal.com/oriental-coyote-the-great-canine-of-the-adirondacks/ https://sotwmetal.com/oriental-coyote-the-great-canine-of-the-adirondacks/#respond Wed, 25 Dec 2019 08:00:00 +0000 https://sotwmetal.com/oriental-coyote-the-great-canine-of-the-adirondacks/ There are few things as scary and awesome as a chorus of coyote calls. My first experiences with these were mind-blowing when I worked at a summer camp in Lake Placid for three years right out of high school. We spent the summer living in canvas tents draped over wooden platforms. At night, we could […]]]>

There are few things as scary and awesome as a chorus of coyote calls. My first experiences with these were mind-blowing when I worked at a summer camp in Lake Placid for three years right out of high school.

We spent the summer living in canvas tents draped over wooden platforms. At night, we could see the fire reflecting in the eyes of the “coydogs” hiding in the trees between the junior and senior camps.

And then we heard the howls… no, the moans… no, the… the… Words fail to describe the sound these animals make when they all sing together, but it was enough to make me wish we had a lot more in between. us than a fragile canvas wall.
These days, I find myself captivated by the chorus of coyotes that drift through my bedroom windows at night. I wake up the dog and we lie there listening to music. However, it is true that there are still times when I walk the dog and we hear them, and they make me think. Like the evening of a few years ago when we were walking home from the golf course and hit a sound barrier. It was as if hundreds of coyotes had set up a roadblock just around the corner of the road. I was fully convinced that we were about to see dozens of wild canines at any given time. I should have taken better note of the dog’s reaction, which was zero. Sound propagates well in the cooler, humid evening air; these animals, which seemed so close, were obviously further away than my imagination could place them.

The history of the eastern coyote seems shrouded in mystery. Where does it come from and how did it get here? One hundred years ago there were no coyotes in the Adirondacks. One hundred and fifty years ago we still had wolves. Foxes were our only other wild canid. So how did we come to this big animal that so beautifully filled the void left by the wolves?

The basic theory is that the western coyote moved east. He first came to the plains and made a pretty good life there. Plains coyotes, sometimes referred to as scrub wolves, were sometimes taken in by natives to work as beasts of burden. Because coyotes never really specialized, like wolves or foxes, they have remained fairly flexible in their behaviors, a trait that makes them very adaptable to a wide range of habitats. This also makes them prolific breeders. As their population increased, so did their range.

Evidence suggests that when the coyotes crossed the Mississippi River, some went north into Canada, bypassing the Great Lakes, while others went east and south. The favorites found themselves in new territory that had no other coyotes to mate with. Most animals mate exclusively with their own species, but canids seem to be the exception to this rule, and these early coyotes only found wolves to mate with. The influx of wolf genes helped create animals that were larger than the originals and that began to show some of the social structure found in wolf packs.

What about coydogs? To this day, kids and adults alike talk about the coydogs they’ve seen. If you try to tell them that coydogs don’t exist, you better prepare for a heated discussion because they won’t give up on the idea. “My father said it was like that” is a very difficult argument to refute. The first reported coyote-dog hybrid dates back to 1885, but whether this is a scientific fact or an anecdote is only a guess.

The first successful captive breeding of a coyote and a dog took place in 1937 and all of the puppies died. Captive breeding programs over the years have shown that coyote-dog hybrids end up with asymmetric breeding cycles, resulting in the birth of young at the start of the year when it is still quite cold and food reserves are low; most do not survive. Today, eastern coyotes can certainly find plenty of other coyotes to mate with, so there is no reason for them to tidy up with wild dogs. Therefore, the likelihood of finding real coydog dogs in the 21st century is slim.

It wasn’t until 1944 that the first coyote was reported in Quebec, but it seems after that it didn’t take long for it to appear on both sides of the St. Lawrence River. Reports of “wild hybrid canids” trapped and shot in the Adirondacks appeared in 1942 and 1943. By the 1950s, these mountains were fairly well populated by the new eastern coyote.

Today, eastern coyotes are quite common in the Adirondacks. They have decent sized home ranges (around 10 square miles), walk 10 to 15 miles a day, live in family units of three to five people on average, and eat a variety of foods. Many people suspect that coyotes are responsible for deer death, and as top predators they can and will take deer, but most of the coyote’s diet is made up of medium-sized prey, such as hares. of America and voles.

I have been fortunate enough to see coyotes a few times. The first was a large specimen that passed through my yard in the early hours of the morning about eight years ago; it looked so much like a german shepherd that I had to do a double take. A few winters ago a smaller coyote crossed the road in front of us as the dog and I walked home from our evening walk. In both cases, the animal glanced at me, noticed my presence, then slipped into the forest and disappeared. And it is as it should – a brush with savagery that leaves you with one memory and one craving for more.

Photo of the Eastern Coyote courtesy of Daniel Bogan, PhD student at Cornell University, and Dr. Paul Curtis, DNR.

This essay was first published in the Adirondack Almanack on July 15, 2009.

Ellen rathbone

Ellen rathbone

Ellen Rathbone is by her own admission a “certified nature nut”. She began to contribute to the Adirondack Almanac while living in Newcomb, as an environmental educator for the Adirondack Park Agency Visitor Interpretive Centers for nearly ten years.

Ellen graduated from SUNY ESF in 1988 with a BS in Forestry and Biology and has worked as a naturalist in New York, New Jersey and Vermont.

In 2010, her work took her to Michigan, where she currently resides and serves as the director of education for the Dahlem Conservatory just outside of Jackson, Michigan.

She also writes his own blog on his adventures in Michigan.


View all posts by




Source link

]]>
https://sotwmetal.com/oriental-coyote-the-great-canine-of-the-adirondacks/feed/ 0